1951, The Nature Conservancy has worked with communities, businesses
and people to protect more than 117 million acres around the world.
The Conservancy's mission is to preserve the plants, animals and
natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth
by protecting the lands and waters each need to survive.
In 1946 a small group of scientists formed the Ecologist
Union, resolving to take direct action to save threatened natural
areas. They changed their name to The Nature Conservancy in 1950.
For the next five years the conservancy grew, establishing
offices throughout the nation. In 1955, land acquisition, a key
protection tool for the conservancy, began with a 60-acre purchase
along the Mianus River Gorge on the border of New York and Connecticut.
The conservancy provided $7,500 to finance the purchase, with the
provision that the loan be repaid for use in other conservation
efforts. The revolving loan fund that resulted was the Land Preservation
Fund and is still the organization's foremost conservation tool.
As years passed, the conservancy grew stronger, receiving
donated land and embarking on new partnerships. In 1965 a gift from
the Ford Foundation enabled the conservancy to hire its first full-time,
In 1970 a vice president was hired, Robert E. Jenkins, who leads
the organization to create a biological inventory of the nation,
introducing heightened scientific rigor to land acquisition choices.
The inventory provided the impetus to create the state Natural Heritage
Network. This network covered all 50 states by 1970.
The conservancy spread its wings and launched the International
Conservation Program in 1980. The objective was to identify natural
areas and conservation organizations in Latin America in need of
technical and financial assistance.
During the next 11 years, the conservancy continued to grow
by protecting more land in the U.S. and overseas, while still instituting
new programs. One such program was started in 1991, named Last Great
Places: An Alliance for People and the Environment.
The alliance was a multinational, $300 million initiative
to protect large-scale ecosystems by making people part of the solution.
The initiative emphasizes core reserve areas surrounded by buffer
zones, where appropriate human uses were encouraged.
For its innovative work at the Virginia Coast Reserve, a
flagship site for the initiative, the conservancy received the first
President's Environment and Conservation Challenge Award.
By 1999 the conservancy's membership was more than 1 million
people. In 2001, Steve McCormick became president and chief executive
officer of the conservancy. This same year the conservancy also
turned 50 years old. In celebration, 12 renowned photographers,
including Annie Leibovitz and William Wegman, captured the rich
and complex splendor of some of the Last Great Places in a photography
Also in 2001, the conservancy acquired property for Oregon's Zumwalt
Prairie Preserve on the edge of Hells Canyon in Wallowa County.
The conservancy's 42-square mile preserve includes extensive native
bunchgrass prairie habitats and wooded canyons descending to the
Imnaha River. Creeks on the preserve harbor spawning grounds for
endangered Snake River steelhead and chinook salmon. Zumwalt Prairie
is also renowned for its concentrations of breeding hawks and eagles
and other wildlife.
In 2003, the conservancy, Conservation International and the World
Wildlife Fund, partnered with Chilean environmental organizations
to protect the rare plants and wildlife on 147,500 acres of biologically
rich temperate rainforest in the Validivian Coastal Range in southern
Also in 2003, the conservancy and the National Park Service
jointly purchased the 116,000-acre Kahuka Ranch in Hawaii to add
to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.
The purchase increases the size of the 217,000-acre park by
50 percent, and is the largest conservation transaction in Hawaii’s
To date, the conservancy has 15,274,000 cumulative acres
protected in the U.S; 83,503,700 cumulative acres protected in Canada,
Latin America & Caribbean; and 18,393,225 cumulative acres protected
in the Asia-Pacific region.
The current number of conservancy preserves is about 1,400.